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car is by the British Thomson-
Houston Company and the
General Electric Company. The
"articulated" car is Westinghouse
equipped. Both cars have attained
a speed of 60 miles per hour
on level track and have shown
a low consumption of fuel.
In applying the Diesel heavy
oil engine to true locomotive units, the first
consideration must be of "weight per horsepower
developed." The heavier classes of
Diesel engines in stationary service weigh
within a range of 170 lbs. to 350 lbs. per
horse-power. In locomotive service the
weight of Diesel engine must he added to
the weight of transmission, running gear
and vehicle body. During the great war
some Diesel engines for submarine service
were built showing a horse-power for every
65 Ibs. of engine weight and of late still
lighter weights have been accomplished.
The locomotive designer needs this type of
The 1000 horse-power rated Diesel-electric locomotive built in Germany for the Russian Railways (1924) has a total weight of 275,000 pounds; 275 lb. per horse-power. The 1000 horse-power rated Diesel-electric locomotive built in 1925 by The Baldwin Locomotive Works also weighs 275 lb. per horse-power. This indicates a close coincidence of best European and American practice and sets for the present this weight per horse-power for modern Diesel-electric locomotives. A slight decrease in weight can be looked for with an advance in locomotive horse-power, and the present expectation in this respect is about 220 lbs., which represents a ratio of about 1 to 1.5 when compared with an average steam locomotive. With a thermal efficiency of 3 to 1 in favor of the Diesel engine it appears that the added weight per horse-power is not a severe handicap. Ratios of this character, provided they go hand-in-hand with simplicity, should show attractive operating economies.
The first real Diesel locomotive was that designed in 1909 by engineer Adolph Klose, of Berlin, and constructed jointly by Sulzer Brothers of Winterthur,. Switzerland, and Borsig of Berlin-Tegel, Germany. To show
the boldness of the design, which was of
1000 horse-power, it should be compared
with what is believed to be the first internal
combustion locomotive ever constructed,
the Daimler engine of 1891. As Dr. Diesel's
oil engine had not at that time been
invented, the prime mover was one of the
earliest types of internal combustion motor
and developed only 4 horse-power.
The steam engine, having its source of power generated externally of the cylinder, will start directly under any load within its capacity, and can be controlled entirely by a steam inlet valve (throttle). The internal combustion engine, which generates its own source of power directly within its cylinders, must have auxiliary starting means, and is preferably operated without load until proper thermal conditions are established. Here then lay the problem of the first design:—how to get a running start, and still maintain direct driving, and a speed beginning at zero under load. Much of the history of the Klose locomotive is obscure, as it was constructed at a period unfortunate for proper experiment and record. Beginning the design about 1909 it was not completed and ready for trial until 1913. As it was intended for use on the Hessian-Prussian State Railways in Germany, it naturally fell upon war times in 1914 and its ultimate disposal is not now generally known. Suffice it to say that the direct drive proved a failure, but the experiment on such a scale as 1000 horsepower warned future designers against similar error. It proved positively that the Diesel motor could not be advantageously used for a direct drive in locomotive
This pioneer Diesel locomotive is reputed to have weighed 95 metric tons (207,000 lb.), and as its rating was 1000 horse-power, the weight per horse-power figures 207 lb.